Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. The thyroid has important roles to regulate numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. Different types of thyroid disorders affect either its structure or function.
There are specific kinds of thyroid disorders that includes:
Hypothyroidism -Hypothyroidism results from the thyroid gland producing an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone. It can develop from problems within the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, or hypothalamus. Symptoms of hypothyroidism can include: Fatigue, Poor concentration or feeling mentally "foggy", Dry skin, Constipation, Feeling cold, Fluid retention, Muscle and joint aches, Depression, Prolonged or excessive menstrual bleeding in women.
Hyperthyroidism - Hyperthyroidism describes excessive production of thyroid hormone, a less common condition than hypothyroidism. Symptoms of hypothyroidism usually relate to increased metabolism. In mild cases, there may not be apparent symptoms. Symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism can include: Tremor, Nervousness, Fast heart rate, Fatigue, Intolerance for heat, Increase in bowel movements, Increased sweating, Concentration problems, Unintentional weight loss.
Goiter - A goiter simply describes enlargement of the thyroid gland, regardless of cause. A goiter is not a specific disease per se. A goiter may be associated with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or normal thyroid function.
Thyroid Nodules - Nodules are lumps or abnormal masses within the thyroid. Nodules can be caused by benign cysts, benign tumors, or, less commonly, by cancers of the thyroid. Nodules may be single or multiple and can vary in size. If nodules are excessively large, they may cause symptoms related to compression of nearby structures.
Thyroid cancer - Thyroid cancer is far more common among adult women than men or youth. About 2/3 of cases occur in people under age 55. There are different kinds of thyroid cancer, depending upon the specific cell type within the thyroid that has become cancerous. Most cases of thyroid cancer have a good prognosis and high survival rates, especially when diagnosed in its early stages
Since the thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, disorders of these tissues can also affect thyroid function and cause thyroid problems.